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[The following listing makes no effort to be comprehensive. It consists of items that have come to my attention and does not represent a complete bibliographic search. Visitors to this website are invited to submit items for future inclusion by e-mailing me. BJP]

Recent Articles

In 1999-2005, Frederick L. Coolidge, of the University of Colorado-Colorado Springs, developed and revised the "Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory" (HCTI) for measuring the three-way split between personality types along the lines of the three major trends identified by Horney in Our Inner Conflicts (1945): moving toward people (Ch. 3), moving against people (Ch. 4), and moving away from people (Ch. 5). In their 2001 article, Coolidge, Moor, Yamazaki, Stewart, and Segal have applied the HCTI, in connection with Joel B. Cohen's (1967) operationalization of Horney's tripartite theory, to the "elucidation of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders personality disorder features." Coolidge and Segal (1998) have related Horneyan theory with the progression of the DSM through its five editions, dating back to 1952, and they have shown parallels between Horney's three major neurotic trends and Eysenck's (1978) three-trait model (1945).

Frederick L. Coolidge (1999-2005). Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO.

Frederick L. Coolidge, Alisa J. Estey, Daniel L. Segal, & Peter D. Merle (2013). Are alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder synonymous diagnoses?. Comprehensive Psychiatry 54 (2013), 141-148.

Frederick L. Coolidge, Daniel L. Segal, Brian S. Cahill, & Jennifer L. Archuleta (2008). A new five factor model of psychopathology: preliminary psychometric characteristics of the five-dimensionalpersonality test (5DPT). Personality and Individual Differences 44 (2008) 1326-1334.

Frederick L. Coolidge, Daniel L. Segal, Charles C. Benight, & Jack Danielian (2004). The predictive power of Horney's psychoanalytic approach: an empirical study. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis 64(4), 363-374.

Frederick L. Coolidge, Candace J. Moor, Tomoko G. Yamazaki, Sharon E. Stewart, & Daniel L. Segal (2001). On the relationship between Karen Horney's tripartite neurotic type theory and personality disorder features.

Frederick L. Coolidge, Daniel L. Segal, Julie N. Hook, Tomoko G. Yamazaki, & Ellett (2001). An empirical investigation of Jung's types and personality disorder features.

Frederick L. Coolidge & Daniel L. Segal (1998). Evolution of personality disorder diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.


Celia Hunt extends Bernard J. Paris's application of Horneyan theory to the realm of creative writing as a form of therapy. Andrew N. Tershakovec supplements Horneyan theory within psychoanalytic theory with a model of the brain-mind based on knowledge about information processing systems known in computer science. Jack Danielian and Patricia Gianotti, and also Irving Solomon, offer strategies and methods of implementing Horneyan theory in clinical psychiatry in their books. Segal, Coolidge, and Rosowsky include a section on Horney in the context of treating older adult patients. Jennifer Leigh Selig combines Jungian and Horneyan theory to study the leadership of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in the American civil rights movement. Jeff Mitchell connects Horney not only with philosophy, but also with anthropology and sociology, and Marcus Wiesner uses Horneyan theory to re-examine the mentality of Adolf Hitler in depth. Bernard J. Paris's books from 2010 and 2012 bring Horneyan theory to bear on John Milton's Paradise Lost and Hardy's major novels: Tess of the d'Urbervilles, The Mayor of Casterbridge, and Jude the Obscure. - AKS

Celia Hunt (2013), Transformative Learning through Creative Life Writing. Routledge: London and New York.

"What happens when we write about ourselves using poetic and fictional techniques? This is the question at the heart of Celia Hunt's new book, in which she explores the effects of creative life writing on adults taking the MA in Creative Writing and Personal Development at the University of Sussex, a unique and highly successful programme of study which many have described as 'life changing'. Drawing together ideas from psychodynamic psychotherapy, literary and learning theory, and work in the cognitive and neurosciences of the self and consciousness, Hunt argues that creative life writing undertaken in a supportive learning environment alongside opportunities for reflection has the power to transform the way people think and learn. It does this is by opening them up to a more embodied self-experience, which increases their awareness of the source of their thinking in bodily feeling and enables them to develop a more reflexive approach to learning."

Celia identifies the work of the MA as a form of transformative learning, placing it in the context of recent developments in this influential field of learning theory. She also identifies it as a form of therapeutic education arguing, contrary to those who say that this approach leads to a diminished sense of self, that it can help people to develop a stronger sense of agency, whether for writing or learning or relations with others. Topics covered include:

- Creative writing as a tool for personal and professional development
- The transformative benefits and challenges of creative writing as a therapeutic activity
- The relationships between literary structures and the processes of thinking and feeling
- Collaborative learning and the role of the group
- The role of cognitive-emotional learning in adult education

This book will be of interest to teachers in adult, further and higher education wishing to use creative life writing as a tool for learning, as well as to health care professionals seeking arts-based techniques for use in their practice. It will also appeal to academics interested in the relationship between education and psychotherapy, and in the theory and practice of transformative learning, and to writers seeking a deeper understanding of the creative process."

(information provided on the author's personal website,

Andrew Tershakovec (2007), The Mind: The Power that Changed the Planet. AuthorHouse: Bloomington, IN.

A review of recent findings in key cognitive sciences shows that the human mind's power is unique since it is an information processing device that can program itself. The unconscious within us isn't just a mass of destructive instincts, as we used to believe. To the contrary, it is the real engine of our minds, being the unconscious parallel processing system that learns about the world around us, and uses this knowledge to suitably program its conscious linear counterpart, just as our linear computers are programmed. The intricacies of the interaction between the two systems are summed up and evaluated in this book, so it can supply new insights into the roots of human emotional power, its suppleness and also weaknesses. But if our minds are such incredible machines, shouldn't knowledge of their operations equip us not only for advances in science, but also for reaching superior knowledge of ourselves, and the means for self-improvement?

(book description provided on

"Though dense and complex, this book presents a thorough, much-needed update to the theory of Karen Horney ('Horn-eye,' not 'horny,' 1885-1952). The centerpiece of Tershakovec's book is its model of the functions of the brain's left and right hemispheres as corresponding to two different types of information processing known through computer science: the left brain functions by serial, linear processing (S[L]P), which is closed to input from the environment, and the right hemisphere functions by parallel distributed processing (PDP), is associated with the 'unconscious' and handles feelings and emotions, and is open to input from the environment. However, every paragraph in every chapter contains valuable, important insights on the way the brain-mind functions, in sickness and in health, and although it is not a simplistic self-help guide, the book also contains two somewhat detailed case studies demonstrating one way of tapping into 'emotional capsules' that can help to re-orient people who suffer from anxiety neuroses and steer them back onto the path of self-realization. The final chapter on psycho-pharmacology is perhaps the most complex but also contains powerful analogies and discussions of why it is important, using the knowledge now available to us, to avail ourselves of a more correct model of how the mind works."

(Anthony K. Shin's customer review on

Jack Danielian and Patricia Gianotti (2012): Listening with Purpose: Entry Points into Shame and Narcissistic Vulnerability. Jason Aronson: Lanham, MD.

This manual has been written for a wide range of dynamic practitioners involved in treating patients with narcissistically-infused issues. The treatment model and case material presented in Listening with Purpose cover the spectrum of narcissistic vulnerability and may be applied to the relatively intact patient as well as to the relatively impaired patient. Throughout, it refers to issues of narcissistic vulnerability, from a perspective that assumes narcissistic mechanisms are implicated in all levels of personality functioning and in all people. They exist both in therapists and clients differing only in the level of prominence and degree of disturbance in the personality.

Cutting across several schools of thought, this treatment manual places shame and its derivatives at the very center of narcissistic vulnerabilities, vulnerabilities which create character splits and dissociative phenomena in their wake.

One can wonder if therapists have avoided looking at shame because of its contagious qualities. Human experience has demonstrated that shame is a ubiquitous emotion, yet when individuals encounter shame it places them in a seemingly paradoxical position which looks much like a dissociated limbo state with no way out. We experience it and yet don't experience it, we see it and don't see it, we feel it and don't feel it.

Therapists and mental health professionals cannot adequately treat unexamined shame from within its core unless he or she finds a compatible language for the theory that informs the interventions. In particular, the theory cannot replicate pre-existing splits embedded within a treatment paradigm and cannot be weighted with theoretical underpinnings that are distancing, objectifying, or removed.

The authors have proposed instead an innovative paradigm-shifting model that is very explicit in recommending an experience-near, moment-to-moment immersion in the conflicted and often disoriented life of patients. Unlike existing volumes in the field, Listening with Purpose: Entry Points into Shame and Narcissistic Vulnerability is by design replete with copious down-to-earth examples to help guide one's systemic shift in treatment focus, treatment emphasis, and treatment posture. The shift involves healing on many levels and opens up for re-examination and re-assessment heretofore difficult-to-treat cases of trauma, dissociation, character disturbances, and addictive disorders.

(book description provided on

Irving Solomon (2006): Karen Horney and Character Disorder: A Guide for the Modern Practitioner. Springer Publishing Co., Inc.

Who is Karen Horney and why are her psychoanalytic ideas so important in today's world of once-per-week dynamic psychotherapy? Horney was one of the first analysts to challenge basic Freudian assertions such as the psychoanalytic account of female development. She had a revolutionary focus on present-oriented treatment, and a powerfully-optimistic attitude toward patient growth and change.

This book:

- introduces, defines, and illustrates the major tenets of Horney's theory and technique
- discusses Horney's means of fostering an optimistic attitude that strengthens therapy between therapist and the patient
- demonstrates the special suitability and the effectiveness of Horney's ideas as they are applied to character disorder and to today's most frequent form of treatment: once-per-week session psychotherapy
- presents criticisms of Horney's ideas

Dr. Irving Solomon prepares practitioners to conduct Horneyan therapy and successfully treat character disorder, the most common dysfunction of our time. Dr. Solomon presents, in a concise and organized fashion, Karen Horney's ideas regarding character psychopathology, accompanied by many illustrative vignettes for practical application. Today's clinician will find that Horney's orientation provides a means of conducting brief treatment that is also meaningfully deep.

This book will be of interest to mental health professionals, as well as to lay individuals who seek knowledge of the self, since it realistically, vividly, and authoritatively touches on a multitude of common, easily recognized character trends that destructively complicate our well-being.

(book description provided on

Daniel L. Segal, Frederick L. Coolidge, and Erlene Rosowsky (2006): Personality Disorders and Older Adults. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

"The older adult population is booming in the United States and across the globe. With this boom comes an increase in the number of older adults who experience psychological disorders. Current estimates suggest that about 20% of older persons are diagnosable with a mental disorder: Personality disorders are among the most poorly understood, challenging, and frustrating of these disorders among older adults. This book is designed to provide scholarly and scientifically-based guidance about the diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of personality disorders to health professionals, mental health professionals, and senior service professionals who encounter personality-disordered or "difficult" older adults."

(book description provided on

Chapter 7 in this book contains a section discussing Horney's work and its relevance to personality disorders vis-à-vis older adults, under the subtitle "Interpersonal theories of Personality Disorders" (op. cit., pp. 198-206).

"Interpersonal theories tend to have a broad theoretical perspective, including interactions with others and the effects that culture, gender, and environmental factors have on the individual psyche and outward behavior. Such theorists as Harry Stack Sullivan, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Sidney Jourard, Timothy Leary, and Lorna Smith Benjamin may be good representatives for aspects of interpersonal theories, but psychoanalyst Karen Horney developed one of the premier, time-tested, interpersonal theories. Her theory addressed the continuum of psychologically healthy and unhealthy as well as cultural and gender issues, yet her simple language allowed easy access by nonprofessionals. Furthermore, one of Horney's biographers (Paris, 1994) described that what Horney wrote of as neuroses should now best be conceived of as modern personality disorders. For our exposition, we focus on Horney's model."

(op. cit., p. 198) - AKS

Jennifer Leigh Selig (2012): Integration: The Psychology and Mythology of Martin Luther King, Jr., and His (Unfinished) Therapy With the Soul of America. Mandorla Books: Carpinteria, CA.

"Jesse Jackson once said of Martin Luther King, Jr., 'Thinking about him is like thinking about the prism, the sun shining through a glass from as many angles as you look. You know there is another set of rays, and as many angles as you think about Dr. King, there is yet another set of angles with which to analyze him.' Author and depth psychologist Jennifer Leigh Selig approaches King from the angle of a cultural therapist, a radical conceit that extends therapy beyond the bounded container of the consulting room and into the cultural milieu, and beyond the narrow purview of the licensed few and into the hands of the committed many. During the Civil Rights Movement, Selig illustrates how King put America on the couch, talked with her about her issues, challenged her to see her psychological disease, and marched with her along the path of healing, toward her own integration. And just as common wisdom says that therapists can only take clients as far toward wholeness as they have traveled themselves, it is illuminating to look at King's psychological health for hints about why he was able to succeed, and where he might have failed, to heal his 'client,' the soul of America. Drawing upon the mythic roles that possessed King-the deliverer, the prophet, and the martyr-savior-and the mythic goal that obsessed him-the creation of the beloved community-this book is a fascinating and ground-breaking exploration of the psyche and mythos of one man and his country struggling toward integration."

(book description provided on

In this book, Selig notes that Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was familiar with or had at least heard of Horney, and referred to The Neurotic Personality of Our Time (1937) as a "one of the bestsellers of his day" (p. 121). Selig refers many times in Integration to Horney's work, its possible influence on King, and its utility in understanding King's mission. - AKS

Paul L. Wachtel (1989): The Poverty of Affluence: A Psychological Portrait of the American Way of Life. New Society Publishers: Philadelphia, PA.

"An honest discussion regarding the 'American Way of Life,' and how our 'Affluent Society,' makes us more and more unhappy. A very interesting book that forces us to look inward."

(book description provided on

In The Poverty of Affluence: A Psychological Portrait of the American Way of Life (1989), Paul Wachtel also argues that "there is something compulsive, irrational, and self-defeating" in the way we pursue an ever increasing wealth. While not saying that the whole population is neurotically aggressive, Wachtel feels that Horney's "concept of the moving-against . . . trend captures something important about the manifest patterns of behavior that most characterize our public life and the workings of our economic system" (78). We promote competition rather than mutual support, and in our relation to nature and the environment, "we strive for conquest and domination." We are afraid of being perceived as "a 'pitiful helpless giant' and will commit unreasonable acts of aggression to ward off that feared image" (75). Caught in a vicious circle, we anxiously rely "on the production and accumulation of goods" for our sense of security (79) and continue to do this despite the fact that it makes us more insecure. Wachtel develops these ideas further in "The Preoccupation with Economic Growth: An Analysis Informed by Horneyan Theory" (1991).

(commentary provided by Bernard J. Paris, elsewhere on this site, and in Appendix A to Paris's Karen Horney: A Psychoanalyst's Search for Self-Understanding, 1994, p. 228.)

Anthony M. Benis (2014|2008|1985), Toward Self & Sanity: On the Origins of the Human Character, Second Edition. (e-book); New York, NY: Psychological Dimensions: Wesden (print volume).

" This is an updated eBook edition of the version published in 1985 by Psychological Dimensions Press. It is the original version of the NPA personality theory derived from the ideas of Karen Horney. The NPA traits, posited to be of genetic origins, are narcissism, perfectionism and aggression.

The text is written in question-and-answer (Q & A) format. It contains 48 plates, 12 figures, 7 tables and a 52 page addendum."

(book description provided on and on iTunes iBookstore)

Jacqueline Simon Gunn with Carlo DeCarlo (2014), Bare: Psychotherapy Stripped. New York, NY: University Press Publishers.

"'The jock,' 'a whore,' 'a closet case,' 'a paranoid schizophrenic,' and 'a killer.' In life, in entertainment, in myth, we feel drawn to archetypal personalities--to their drama, to their denial and inner conflicts, to their personal journeys, and to what makes them tick. These five are just some of the people who make up BARE: Psychotherapy Stripped, which explores the true-life chronicles of long-term psychotherapy patients while sharing with the reader what goes through the mind of the therapist during the session. Using a first-person, non-traditional novelized format, this case-study book strips away the classical barrier between the psychologist and the patient so the reader can live through the patients' traumas, their ups and downs, and experience how it feels to sit in the therapist's chair. While empathizing with the patients' lives, readers might just glean insight into themselves and their life in general. BARE peels back the veil of therapy with moving, shocking and sometimes humorous results."

(book description provided on and on Google Play)

Darlene Lancer (2014), Conquering Shame and Codependency: 8 Steps to Freeing the True You. Center City, MN: Hazelden.

"A nationally recognized author and codependency expert examines the roots of shame and its connection with codependent relationships. Learn how to heal from their destructive hold by implementing eight steps that will empower the real you, and lead to healthier relationships.

Shame. The torment you feel when you’re exposed, humiliated, or rejected. The feeling of not being good enough. It’s a deeply painful, universal emotion, yet is not frequently discussed. For some, shame lurks in the unconscious, undermining self-esteem and destroying confidence, leading to codependency on others. These codependent relationships —where we overlook our own needs and desires as we try to care for, protect, or please another—are often covering up abuse, addiction, or other harmful behaviors. Shame and codependency feed off one another, making us feel stuck, never able to let go, move on, and become the true self we were meant to be.

In Conquering Codependency and Shame, Darlene Lancer sheds new light on shame: how codependents’ feelings and beliefs about shame affect their identity, symptoms, and behavior, and how shame can corrode relationships, destroying trust and love. She then provides the eight key steps to heal from shame, learn to love yourself, and develop healthy relationships."

(book description provided on and on Google Play)

Jeff Mitchell (2014), Individualism and Moral Character: Karen Horney's Depth Psychology. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

"There are hundreds of different systems of psychotherapy today, ranging from the traditional 'talking cure' to symbolic 're-birthing' and primal scream. The landscape is littered with serious social science, pop psychology, esoteric doctrine, and pure charlatanism. One of the obvious dangers of so many choices is that the best therapies may be lost in a profusion of competing schools and traditions.

To some extent, this has been the fate of the school of psychotherapy developed by Karen Horney. Since her death in 1952, Horney's work has received insufficient attention, in part because criticism of Freud's thought may have tainted attitudes toward psychotherapy in general. Jeff Mitchell argues that Karen Horney's school of psychoanalysis constitutes a highly innovative moral psychology. He interprets her approach to the treatment of personality or character disorders as a form of moral education.

Drawing on research in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, sociology, and psychology, Mitchell argues that Horney's reworking of Freud's thinking preserves and builds upon what was truly insightful in his work, and eliminates the most dubious elements. Her thinking acknowledges that today individuals achieve their own identities rather than accepting what was ascribed to them by birth. This makes Karen Horney's theories especially relevant, both for psychotherapy as well as to thought about human affairs in general."

(book description provided on and on Google Play)

Marcus Wiesner, with an introduction by Norman Simms (2002), Destruction Artist: An Interpretive Study of Adolph Hitler. Hamilton, New Zealand: Outrigger Publishers.

"Originally published as a two-part series in the journal Mentalities. From the Introduction: 'A psychoanalytic study, using the insights and tools of Karen Horney's method it examines Adolf Hitler as a frustrated, failed artist. Yet the essay is not bogged down in so-called psychobabble and does not truck out the tired old Freudian cliche of the artist as neurotic (or in this case: psychotic) who externalizes into public symptoms the inner turmoil of his soul. That would trivialize the figure of Hitler and the enormity of his crimes. There is a more psychohistorical perspective at work.' "

(book description provided on

Jack L. Rubins (1978), Karen Horney: Gentle Rebel of Psychanalysis. New York: The Dial Press.

" . . . Horney's theory presaged other more general currents in psychological thought that have become popular today. One has been the increasing emphasis on socio-cultural factors as the causes of emotional illness. She would have found this overall trend congenial. But not completely! She would have disagreed with the degree to which society is blamed for neurosis and the resulting attempts to treat neurosis by simply changing social conditions. In point of fact, even though she continues to be considered a 'Neo-Freudian culturalist' psychoanalyst, this classification is misleading. It was based on her earlier work; she remained individual-oriented and in her later work focused almost exclusively on the inner structure of the psyche."

(op. cit., p. 317)

Bernard J. Paris (2012): A General Drama of Pain: Character and Fate in Hardy's Major Novels. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, NJ. (see author's personal website).

Available in Kindle format on Also available on Google Play.

"This motivational analysis of the protagonists in Thomas Hardy's three most widely read novels--Tess of the d'Urbervilles, The Mayor of Casterbridge, and Jude the Obscure--highlights an often-overlooked aspect of his art. Bernard J. Paris shows Hardy's genius in creating imagined human beings. He demonstrates that while Hardy tends to blame external conditions for his characters' painful fates, their downfalls are due to a very complex combination of cosmic, social, and psychological factors.

Hardy's characters are usually discussed primarily in thematic terms. The characters are are so richly portrayed, Paris argues, that they can be better understood independent of Hardy's interpretations, in motivational terms and he utilizes the psychologist Karen Horney's theories to recover Hardy's intuitions. The characters are full of inner conflicts that make them difficult to fathom, but the approach Paris employs explains their contradictions and illuminates their troubled relationships--shedding light on these expertly crafted imagined human beings.

This psychological approach to Hardy's characters enables us to understand his characters and gain insight into the implied authors of the works. In addition, the approach shows Hardy's authorial personality. We can see that Hardy treats some defensive strategies more sympathetically than others. Given his view of life as "a general drama of pain," resignation, like that of Hardy's character Elizabeth-Jane, is the strategy he prefers."

(book description provided on

Bernard J. Paris (2010): Heaven and Its Discontents: Milton's Characters in Paradise Lost. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, NJ. (see author's personal website).

Available on Google Play

Many critics agree with C. S. Lewis that ""Satan is the best drawn of Milton's characters"". Satan is certainly a wonderful creation, but Adam and Eve are also complex and well-drawn, and God may be the most complicated character of all. Paradise Lost is above all God's story; it is his discontent, first with Lucifer and then with human beings, that drives the action from the beginning until his anger subsides at the world's end.

God and Satan have similarities not only in their pursuit of revenge, but also in their craving for power and glory. The ambitious Satan wants more than he already has, but what accounts for the voracity of God's appetite? Does the fact that each threatens the status of the other help to explain the intensity of their hatred and rage? Is their vindictiveness a response to being threatened, an effort to repair the injury they feel they've sustained? This seems to be the case for Satan, but must not God also have felt deeply hurt to have such a powerful need for vengeance? If so, why is the Almighty so vulnerable? And why is he so hard on Adam and Eve and the rest of humankind? These are the kinds of questions Bernard Paris tries to answer in this book.

Paris's purpose is not to focus on Milton's illustrative intentions but to try to understand God, Satan, Adam, and Eve as psychologically motivated characters who are torn by inner conflicts.Most critics treat Milton's characters as coded messages from the author, but their mimetic features interfere with the process of decoding. Instead of looking through the characters to the author, Paris looks at Milton's characters as objects of interest in themselves, as creations inside a creation who escape their thematic roles and are embodiments of his psychological intuitions. This book heightens our appreciation of an ignored aspect of Milton's art and offers new insights into the critical controversies that have surrounded Paradise Lost.

(book description provided on

Transaction Publishers has also reissued reprints of Paris's first two books applying a Horneyan approach to literary criticism: A Psychological Approach to Fiction (1974/2010), with a new introduction by the author; and Character and Conflict in Jane Austen's Novels (1978/2013).

Added, May 2014

Harold Kelman (1971), Helping People: Karen Horney's Psychoanalytic Approach. New York: Science House.

Although this book is long out of date, and the phrasing reflects the time at which it appeared in print (1971), the first two chapters on "History" and "Theory" contain valuable knowledge about and add perspective to our view of Horney in relation to others in her circle. Furthermore, Kelman's book abounds in references to Horney, as befits a work that endeavored to take up the task in which Horney showed great interest but which she left unfinished:

"In one of the lectures in the course on 'Psychoanalytic Therapy' (1952) Horney said: 'When we know what does what, how, then I could write the book on technique that I have been trying to write for years.' Horney never did write her book on technique, a lack which this book attempts to fill. Other interests precluded her from doing so. However, she showed her deep concern with technique issues through her continuing efforts in attempting to bring clarity to the many knotty questions it raised."

(Kelman, op. cit., p. 42)

In my opinion, the late Andrew Tershakovec's book, from 2007, has provided sufficient knowledge of "what does what, how" that was lacking in Horney and Kelman's time, when the models of how the brain-mind could work, which Tershakovec found in computer science, had not yet become available. In addition, the more recent work of Friston and Hobson has the potential to shed valuable light on why information processing actually does seem to take place by two different modes in the brain-mind, and perhaps even on how the tasks come to be separated and lateralized between the two hemispheres of the brain. - AKS

From the 1992 IKHS Bulletin

Martin Birnbach, Neo-Freudian Social Philosophy (Stanford University Press, 1961; reissued 1978).

Birnbach's thesis is that "the Neo-Freudians make fresh proposals that accord with the needs of the present time, both socially and intellectually. Their writings contain a conception of man as he exists in our society, evidence of how he is formed by that society, and a social philosophy that does much to explain his behavior in a political or, if you like, a social context. Whether the truths they have uncovered will be valid for all eternity is not the issue. They may, however, be of guidance to social scientists in canvassing ideas in their respective fields of study. The present volume essays a synthesis and elucidation of their thoughts" (2). The theorists discussed include Fromm, Sullivan, Kardiner, Alexander, Lasswell, and Horney. The treatment of Horney is substantial, perceptive, and friendly.

Nancy Chodorow, Feminism and Psychoanalytic Thought (Yale University Press, 1989).

After having admittedly failed to appreciate Horney's contribution in her earlier writings, Chodorow pays this impressive tribute to the essays on feminine psychology:

Psychoanalytic feminism has a rather complex and sometimes underground prehistory, a prehistory which recent work on early women psychoanalysts helps us to excavate. I locate its political and theoretical origins with Karen Horney, a second-generation analyst whose early essays on femininity forcefully challenge Freud. Horney asserts a model of women with positive primary feminine qualities and self-valuation, against Freud's model of woman as defective and forever limited, and she ties her critique of both psychoanalytic theory and women's psychology to her recognition of a male-dominant society and culture. Horney's theories, and indeed the early psychoanalytic debates about femininity, do not seem to have made a major impact on mainstream psychoanalysis for many years; indeed, until the current revival of interest in female psychology sparked by the feminist movement and challenge. However, her theories form the basis, acknowledged or unacknowledged, for most of the recent revisions of psychoanalytic understandings of gender and for most psychoanalytic dissidence on the question of gender in the early period as well. (pp. 2-3)

Agnes N. O'Connell and N. F. Russo, Women in Psychology: A Bio-bibliographic Sourcebook (Greenwood, 1990).

Includes a chapter on Karen Horney written by Agnes O'Connell.

Agnes N. O'Connell and N. F. Russo, "The History of Women in Psychotherapy." In The History of Psychotherapy: A Century of Change (American Psychological Association, 1992).

The chapter cited includes a discussion of Karen Horney's work.

Bernard J. Paris, guest editor, Special Issue of The American Journal of Psychoanalysis on Interdisciplinary Applications of Horney. Volume 49, September 1989.

This issue begins with a survey of interdiciplinary applications of Horney by the guest editor. There are Horneyan essays on Antonio in The Merchant of Venice by Bernard Paris, on Mary Shelley's Frankenstein by Harry Keyishian, on Faulkner's Quentin Compson by Karen Ann Butery, on Lessing's The Good Terrorist by Patricia Eldredge, on "Female Relationality and the Idealized Self" by Marcia Westkott [Essay available on this site], and on "Young Man Johnson" by James R. Huffman. The issue concludes with "Godot and Gestalt" by Norman Friedman.

Bernard J. Paris, "A Horneyan Approach to Literature," American Journal of Psychoanalysis, Vol. 51 (1991) 319-337.

Using Crime and Punishment as its primary illustration, this essay shows how Horney theory can help us to analyze character and theme and the tensions between them, how it sheds light on narrative technique, and how it enables us to understand the relationship between literary plots and defensive strategies, to make inferences about authors from their creations, and to explore the ways in which the psychology of the reader influences both emotional and critical response.

Janet Sayers, Mothers of Psychoanalysis: Helene Deutsch, Karen Horney, Anna Freud, Melanie Klein (Norton, 1991)--published in England as Mothering Psychoanalysis.

Excerpt from letter from Bernard Paris to Jane Sayers, June 11, 1991:

I do have some reservations about your account of Horney that I want to express so that you can think about them if you have occasion to speak or write about her further. She did come to see her major problems as having derived from her relationship with her mother (though she liked to emphasize the entire family constellation), and she did shift the emphasis away from Freud's father-centered account of development. Sometimes I feel, however, that you invoke her experiences of being mothered, of being a mother, and of being regarded as a mother by her patients to explain too much, or to account for aspects of her thought in too general a way.

I feel that you understand least well and do least justice to her mature theory, which I greatly admire. It is not nearly as facilely optimistic and unaware of external conditions as you make it seem to be. In writing about Neurosis and Human Growth, you say: "Horney went on to focus again on the divorce of real and idealized self which she believed to be self-generated in defence against an also internally generated conflict between movement towards, against, and away from others" (137). I do not believe that this is correct, especially if you are suggesting the defensive moves are also self-generated. Horney did not abandon her derivation of neurosis from adverse conditions in childhood, as you suggest, though she did not see the recovery of childhood experience as the focus of therapy. Her point is that the adult structure is the evolved product of experience, rather than a mere repetition of early traumas and/or relationships, and that we can understand it without fully understanding its origin. A certain defense may have had its inception in early experiences with the mother, but it will then be subject to the influence of subsequent experiences and of other, conflicting, defenses, which may modify its character and its place in the total structure. Horney preferred to try to understand the adult's defense system, which she recognized to be the product of past interactions between the individual and his family, culture, friends, lovers, coworkers, etc.; and for that reason she invited people to focus on currently existing internal rather than past external causal factors. The adult has to work on the existing internal structure to understand how current behavior is generated by that structure, but this does not mean that the structure itself is ultimately self-generated. It is the product of past interactions between the individual and the environment, in which the individual's temperament is a variable.

Horney had a strong sense of the neurotic (including herself) as victim, but she also believed that blaming external factors won't get us anywhere (though it can help reduce self-hate) and that we have to accept the responsibility of working at ourselves if we are going to alleviate our difficulties. If you compare the claims for self-cure in Self-Analysis with her rather resigned sense in NHG of how difficult it is to give up the idealized image or to outgrow morbid dependency, even with the most determined effort, you will see that she became less rather than more optimistic.

After focusing on culture in her middle period, Horney turned to interpersonal relations and intrapsychic dynamics in her effort to understand and relieve individual suffering. This makes her less immediately useful for those who want to bring about social and cultural changes that will provide a more benign environment. Her mature theory can be put to such uses, however, even though she did not do it herself; and I do not think that she should be faulted for her focus on the individual. She was, after all, a therapist. John Stuart Mill speaks of the limitations of the poor human mind that can only see one thing at a time clearly. I think that Horney saw some things very clearly indeed. One of the things she saw was that wherever her problems originated, they were now inside of herself, and she had to take responsibility for trying to alleviate them. Without denying that women have had a very bad deal, she would not want her patients to fail to see that this has done bad things to them that it is up to them to try to correct. It is true that, after a point, she was not much interested in social action, which is important to provide a better environment for future generations; but I don't think she saw social action as the province of psychoanalysis or as the answer to her patients' difficulties. Feminists owe Horney a lot, I think, but often, after acknowledging that, they wind up complaining about what she didn't do or her lack of political correctness.

I am very pleased to have your treatment of Horney in print, and I shall draw upon it with gratitude. . . . As you show, Horney was ahead of her time in many, many ways, and there are striking parallels between her ideas and those of later workers whose ideas have received more respect.

Robert Tucker, Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above, 1928-1941 (Norton, 1990).

This book, like the first volume of Professor Tucker's biography, Stalin as Revolutionary, employs Horney theory in its explanation of Stalin's character and behavior. Professor Tucker is working at present on the concluding volume of his trilogy. [See Professor Tucker's "A Stalin Biographer's Memoir," posted on this site]


Diego Garofalo, Ph.D., is the author of a text-book on K. Horney's theory: La psicoanalisi interpersonale. Introduzione all'opera di Karen Horney (C.L.E.U.P., Padova 1979), and of a forthcoming volume on Neofreudians (Kardiner, Sullivan, Thompson, Fromm, Horney): I Neofreudiani e il disagio della civilita contemporanea. Introduzione alla psicoanalisi della cultura e della societa.

Nathan Horwitz, "A Horneyan Analytic Perspective on Couple Therapy: A Case Study" in The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, Vol. 54, No. 3 (September, 1994), 203-218.

James R. Huffman, "A Horneyan Approach to American Literature" in Dionysus in Literature: Essays on Literary Madness, ed. Branimir Rieger, Popular Press, 1994.

Harry Keyishian, The Shapes of Revenge: Victimization, Vengeance, and Vindictiveness (Humanities Press, 1994). Although this book focuses on Renaissance concepts of revenge and their embodiment in literature, it was partially inspired by Professor Keyishian's knowledge of Karen Horney's ideas about vindictiveness, which are borne out in Renaissance psychology.

Sharna Olfman, "Gender, Patriarchy and Women's Mental Health: Psychoanalytic Perspectives," in the Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, Vol. 2., No. 2 (Summer, 1984). The essay discusses Horney, Dinnerstein, and Chodorow.

Bernard Paris, Karen Horney: A Psychoanalyst's Search for Self-Understanding (Yale, 1994).

Bernard Paris, "Marlow's Transformation" (on Heart of Darkness), The Aligarh Journal of English Studies, Vol 15 (1993), 65-72.

Michelle Price, "The Impact of Incest on Identity Formation in Women," The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Summer, 1993), 213-228.

Michelle Price, "Incest and the Idealized Self: Adaptations in Childhood Sexual Abuse," The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, Vol. 54, No. 1 (March, 1994), 21-38.


Claudia Bepko applies Horney theory to the treatment of alcoholism and alcoholic families in The Responsibility Trap.

Ineke Bockting, Character and Personality in the Novels of William Faulkner: A Study in Psycholinguistics. University Press of America, 1995.

Ruth Carver Capasso, "Sun, Veil and Maze: Mlle de Scudèry's Parthenie," Papers on French Seventeenth Century Literature 20 (1993), 97-111.

E. Tory Higgens explores the Horneyan distinction between the ideal and the actual self in an essay in Social Cognition 3: 51-76.

Kristin Lauer, "Is This Indeed 'Attractive'? Another Look at the "Beatrice Palmato' Fragment," The Edith Wharton Review 11 (1994): 26-29.

Bernard Paris, "Pulkheria Alexandrovna and Raskolnikov, My Mother and Me," in Self-Analysis and Literary Study, ed. Daniel Rancour-Laferrier. NYU Press, 1994, 111-128. [Essay available on Bernard Paris website]

Bernard Paris, "Petruchio's Taming of Kate: A Horneyan Perspective," American Journal of Psychoanalysis, Vol. 54 (1994), 339-334.

Floyd W. Rudmin, "Gender Differences in the Semantics of Ownership," Journal of Economic Psychology 15 (1994), 487-510.

Mark Taylor, "Farther Privileges: Conflict and Change in Measure for Measure," Philological Quarterly 73 (1994, 169-93.

Wenja You, "A Horneyan Analysis of Lao Li in Lao She's Divorce," Chinese Culture 36 (1995), 89-99.


Morely Segal, Points of Influence: A Guide to Using Personality Theory at Work. Jossey-Bass, 1996. "With brief introductions to the key personality theorists who have had the most profound influence on the study of motivation, Morely Segal shows how each theory can help managers gain a better understanding of human behavior, take action to influence behavior, increase their own personal self-awareness, and expand their managerial skills." There is a substantial chapter on Horney.


Johanna Ghei, An Analysis of the Emergence and Development of the Concept of the Real Self in the Writings of Karen Horney. University of Wisconsin Dissertation, 1993. Available through UMI Dissertation Information Service.

Milton M. Berger, editor, Women Beyond Freud: New Concepts of Feminine Psychology. Brunner/Mazel, 1994.

Containing contributions by Milton Berger, Susan Quinn, Marianne Horney Eckardt, Douglas Ingram, Helen Singer Kaplan, Harold I. Lief, Jean Baker Miller, Carol Gilligan, Silvia W. Olarte, and Mario Rendon, this volume honors Karen Horney's work in the field of feminine psychology. It is based on an historic meeting, attended by over 2,000 mental health professionals, marking the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Karen Horney Psychoanalytic Center.

The following essays in the collection have particular relevance to Karen Horney:

Milton M. Berger, Introduction and Epilogue

Susan Quinn, "Awaken to Life: Sources of Independence in the Girlhood of Karen Horney."

Marianne Horney Eckardt, "Karen Horney's Feminine Psychology and the Passions of Her Time."

Douglas Ingram, Discussion of the Papers by Susan Quinn and Marianne Horney Eckardt.

Claudio Naranjo, Character and Neurosis: An Integrative Approach, Gateways, 1994.

This book is dedicated to the memory of Karen Horney and contains many references to her contribution.

The American Journal of Psychoanalysis

Karen Horney was the founding editor of this Journal, which is published by the Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis. Over the years, many Horneyan pieces have appeared in the journal, the following since 1994:

Andrew Gordon, "It's Not Such a Wonderful Life: The Neurotic George Bailey," 54 (1994): 219-33.

Michelle Price, Review of Karen Horney: A Psychoanalyst's Search for Self-Understanding, 55 (1995), 389-91.

Edward Clemmens, Review of Karen Horney: A Psychoanalyst's Search for Self-Understanding, 55 (1995), 391-93.

Bernard J. Paris, Response to Reviews of Karen Horney: A Psychoanalyst's Search for Self-Understanding, 56 (1996), 116-119.

Mario Rendon, Guest Editor, Vol. 56, No. 2 (June, 1996) on Karen Horney in Italy. These are papers from the IKHS International Conference in Rome, May, 1994. The following items of are particular relevance to Horney:

Bernard J. Paris, "Introduction to Karen Horney," 135-140

Guissepe Mccolis, "Sociocultural Influences in the Theory of Karen Horney," 141-48.

Vincent Morrone, "Progress, Process, and Change," 149-56.

Elio Lapponi, "Psychodynamic and Systemic Paradigms: An Attempted Integration in the Light of Personal Experience with Groups," 177-86.

Sandro Maiello, "Epistemological Contribution of the Horney Theory to Group Psychoanalysis," 187-92.

Diego Garofalo, "The Clinical Application of Karen Horney's Theory to Group Psychoanalysis," 193-202.

Fausto Rossano, "Psychoanalysis and Psychiatric Institutions: Theoretical and Clinical Spaces of the Horney Approach," 203-12.

Marcia Westkott, Mario Rendon, Bernard J. Paris, Nathan M. Horowitz, Jack Danielian, Summaries of Karen Horney's Major Works, 213-229.

Douglas Ingram, "Reassurance in Analytic Therapy," 57 (1997), 221-242. Discussions by Myron L. Glucksman and Edward R. Clemmens, 243-52.

Marianne Horney Eckardt, "The Changing Challenges in the Lives of Three Generations of Professional Women," 58 (1998), 351-60.

Deals with herself, her mother (Karen Horney), and her daughter.

Marcia Westkott, "Horney, Zen, and the Real Self," 58 (1998), 287-302.

Edward B. Katz, "Self-Esteem: The Past of an Illusion," 58 (1998), 303-16.

Zoltan Morvay, "Horney, Zen, and the Real Self," 59 (1999), 25-36.

Bernard J. Paris, "Karen Horney's Vision of the Self," 59 (1999), 157-66. Responses by Althea Horner (167-70) and Douglas Ingram (175-80). [Essay available on this site]

Bernard J. Paris, "Middlemarch Revisited: Changing Responses to George Eliot," 59 (1999), 237-56. [Available online as part of the 2000 issue of PSYART]

Abstract: In Experiments in Life: George Eliot's Quest for Values (1965), I subscribed to George Eliot's beliefs and saw her characters in terms of her own interpretations and judgments, as I understood them. I have subsequently come to feel that Eliot's philosophy has serious deficiencies and to perceive her characters as brilliant mimetic creations who subvert their formal and thematic roles when we analyze their psychology. Focusing on Dorothea Brooke, this essay compares my past and present readings, tries to explain why my responses have changed, and argues that George Eliot's Religion of Humanity, which Dorothea exemplifies, is a celebration of what Karen Horney describes as the self-effacing solution. George Eliot shows us the destructiveness of this solution, with its compulsively self-sacrificial behavior, but since she employs the solution herself, her rhetoric glorifies it as a sign of moral grandeur.

Douglas Ingram, The Hofgeismar Lectures: A Contemporary Overview of Horneyan Psychoanalysis," 61 (2001), 113-42.

Nathan Horowitz, "Why Do People Stay in Hateful Relationships? The Concept of Malignant Vindictiveness," 61 (2001), 143-60. Discussion by Ann-Marie Paley (161-64).

Bernard J. Paris, "Karen Horney: A Bibliography of Her Writings," 61 (2001), 165-72.

Other relevant publications:

There have been Russian translations of Feminine Psychology (1993) and Neurosis and Human Growth (1997) published by the East European Institute for Psychoanalysis in St. Petersburg, Russia.

There have been Chinese translations of New Ways in Psychoanalysis (1999), Our Inner Conflicts (1998), and Neurosis and Human Growth (1996), published by the Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing House. SLAPH has also published Chinese translations of Bargains with Fate: Psychological Crises and Conflicts in Shakespeare and His Plays and Karen Horney: A Psychoanalyst's Search for Self-Understanding by Bernard Paris.

There has been a German translation of Karen Horney: A Psychoanalyst's Search for Self-Understanding, published by Kore Verlag, Freiburg, 1996.

Bernard J. Paris, "Karen Horney Contre Sigmund Freud: Ane Théorie Structurelle de la Nérvose," L'Evolution Psychiatrique, 62 (1997), 617-27.

Bernard J. Paris, "Karen Horney and Humanistic Psychoanalysis," Personality and Personal Growth, Fourth edition, ed. James Fadiman and Robert Frager. Longman, 1998, pp. 157-90. [Chapter available on this site]

Renate Horney (Patterson), Lazarus, What's Next? Lauren Press, Laguna Beach, CA., 1999.

This delightful memoir contains many stories about Renate's life with her mother, Karen Horney. [Prologue and Chapter 1 available on this site]

Patricia Eldredge, "Marlene, Maggie Thatcher, and the Emperor of Morocco: The Psychic Structure of Caryl Churchill's Top Girls," in Psychoanalyses/Feminisms, Ed. Peter Rudnystky and Andrew Gordon, State University of New York Press, 2000, pp. 71-84. Uses Horney.

Bernard J. Paris, "Karen Horney: The Three Phases of Her Thought," Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology, Vol. 4. American Psychological Association and Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000, pp. 163-79.

Bernard J. Paris, "Karen Horney," Encyclopedia of Psychology, Oxford University Press, 2000, 161-63.

Bernard J. Paris, "Karen Horney," Dictionnaire de la Psycanalyse, Calmann-Levy (Paris), 2001.

Jerome Wagner, "Karen Horney Meets the Enneagram," Enneagram Monthly, 71 (April 2001), 8-12. [Essay available on this site]

Anna Bernet, "The Unknown Karen Horney: Her Influence on Perls and Its Implications for Gestalt Therapy," Australian Gestalt Journal, GANZ 2000 Conference issue, 4 (2001), pp. 33-47.

Diego Garofalo, Analisi di guppo: La prospettiva interpersonale di Karen Horney, EDUP, 2001. See Bulletin Board (Horney in Italy) for description.

Suzanne Raitt, "Karen Horney," American Cultural Theorists, ed. Paul Hansom (Vol. 246 of the Dictionary of Literary Biography), in press.

Bernard J. Paris, "Karen Horney," The Freud Encyclopedia, Garland Publishing Co. In press.

Marcus Wiesner, Ph.D. <> has written a Horneyan study of Adolph Hitler that is appearing as a two-part essay in Mentalities/Mentalités, an international interdisciplinary journal (edited by Dr. Norman Simms, English Dept., University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand). Part I is in Volume 16 (2001), 29-48. Dr. Wiesner has provided the following abstract:

According to Karen Horney, an individual's neurotic "search for glory" can have the intensity of the most elemental of human drives. This study compares Horney's observations of patients, particularly those having arrogant-vindictive character trends, with the known facts of Hitler's life. Finding a close match over the course of Hitler's life, the study argues that Hitler can be viewed as a "destruction artist," with his failure to find success in the artistic realm as the source of his relentless enmity toward Jews and the reason he moved to the political arena, where his need to triumph over other mercilessly was a pathological manifestation of his search for glory.

Dr. Wiesner is a psychologist who has been trained in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. He maintains a private practice in Montclair, New Jersey.

[See Bulletin Board for updated information about Dr. Weisner’s study.]

ADDITIONS--2004 (this includes some earlier items that were not listed before)

Peg LeVine, “Influence of Morita Therapy on Karen Horney’s Final Analysis.” Australian Psychologist, 29, 1994, 153-57.

Patsy Ann Watts, Representing the Marginalized: A Horneyan Analysis of Psychological Defenses in Thomas Dekker’s Citizen and Domestic Drama. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Solcial Sciences, Vol. 55, 1995, 2410.

Robin L. Benton, The Prophetic Voice of Karen Horney in the Evolution of Psychoanalytic Female Developmental Theory: From Freud to Contemporary Revisionists. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A, Vol. 55, 1995, 3990.

Robert C. Leslie, “Karen Horney and Viktor Franl: Optimists in Spite of Everything.” International Forum for Logotherapy, Vol. 19, 1996, 23-28.

Marcia Westkott, “Karen Horney’s Encounter with Zen.” In Janet Jacobs, Donald Capps, Eds, Religion, Society, and Psychoanalysis: Readings in Contemporary Theory, 71-89.

Michelle Price, “Karen Horney’s Counterdiscourses: Contemporary Implications.” In Paul Marcus and Alan Rosenberg, Eds., Psychoanalytic Versions of the Human Condition: Philosophies of Life and Their Impact on Practice. NYU Press, 1998, 94-116.

Paula Hope Durham, Patriarchy and Self-Hate: Mary Daly’s Psychological Assessment of Patriarchal Religion Appraised and Critiques in the Context of Karen Horney’s Psychoanalytic Theory. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A, Vol. 58, 1998, 3953.

Kenneth Eisold, “The Splitting of the New York Psychoanalytic Society and the Construction of Psychoanalytic Authority.” International Journal of Psychoanalysis,79, 1998: 871-885.

Frederick L. Coolidge, Candace J. Moor, and Tomoko G. Yamazaki, “On the Relationship between Karen Horney’s Tripartite Neurotic Type Theory and Personality Disorder Features.” Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 2001: 1387-1400.

Cooper, Terry Don, The Over-Valued and Under-valued Self: Pride and Self-Contempt in the Thought of Reinhold Nieburr, Carl Rogers, and Karen Horney. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A, 2001, 1866.

Inge Seiffge-Krenke and Susanna Hiltrud, “The Body in Adolescent Diaries: The Case of Karen Horney.” Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 57, 2002: 400-410.

Michelle Price Miletic, “The Introduction of a Feminine Psychology to Psychoanalysis: Karen Horney’s Legacy.” Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 38, 2002: 287-299.

Jane Flax, “Resisting Women: On Feminine Difference in the Work of Horney, Thompson, and Moulton.” Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 38, 2002: 257-276.

Books By Bernard Paris About Or Employing Horney

Bernard J. Paris
, A Psychological Approach to Fiction: Studies in Thackeray, Stendhal, George Eliot, Dostovesky, and Conrad.
Indiana University Press, 1974.
Available on Google Play.
Available online:
Book Description (Bernard Paris website)

Bernard J. Paris, Character and Conflict in Jane Austen's Novels: A Psychological Approach
Wayne State University Press, 1978
Harvester Press, 1979
Available on Google Play.
Available online:
Book Description

Bernard J. Paris, Third Force Psychology and the Study of Literature (editor)
Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1986
In print.
Book Description

Bernard J. Paris, Bargains with Fate: Psychological Crises and Conflicts in Shakespeare and His Plays
Plenum Press, 1991
Available on Google Play.
Available online:
Book Description

Bernard J. Paris, Character as a Subversive Force in Shakespeare: The History and Roman Plays
Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1991
Available on Google Play
Book Description

Bernard J. Paris, Karen Horney: A Psychoanalyst's Search for Self-Understanding
Yale University Press, 1994
In print (paperbound edition). Available in German and Chinese translations.
Book Description

Bernard J. Paris, Imagined Human Beings: A Psychological Approach to Character and Conflict in Literature
New York University Press, 1997
In print (paperbound edition)
Book Description

Nominated for a Gradiva Award
Preface, Chapters 1 & 2, and References posted on the Bernard Paris website. See Chapter 2 and References for applications of Horneyan theory to the study of literature. Available in Kindle format on

Bernard J. Paris, ed. The Therapeutic Process: Essays and Lectures, by Karen Horney
Yale University Press, 1999
In print.
Book Description

Bernard J. Paris
, ed. The Unknown Karen Horney: Essays on Gender, Culture, and Psychoanalysis, by Karen Horney
Yale University Press, 2000
In print
Book Description

Nominated for a Gradiva Award

Bernard J. Paris, Rereading George Eliot: Changing Perspectives on Her Experiments in Life
State University of New York Press, 2003
In print (paper and hardbound).
Available on Google Play
Book Description

Bernard J. Paris, Conrad's Charley Marlow: A New Approach to "Heart of Darkness" and Lord Jim.

Palgrave Macmillan, 2005

Bernard J. Paris, Dostoevsky's Greatest Characters: A New Approach to "Notes from Underground," Crime and Punishment, and The Brothers Karamazov.

Palgrave Macmillan, 2008

Bernard J. Paris, Heaven and Its Discontents: Milton's Characters in Paradise Lost. Transaction Publishers, 2010

Available on Google Play.

Bernard J. Paris, A General Drama of Pain: Character and Fate in Hardy's Major Novels. Transaction Publishers, 2012

Available in Kindle format on Also available as an eBook on Google Play.

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Last updated: 05/27/2014