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In 1999, Stella Atzeni-Giuliante completed a thesis on Karen Horney at the University La Sapienza in Rome: "Ule Esperienze Soggettive di Constrizione e Peridto Dell'Autonomia Interiore nella Teoria Di Karen Horney". Her address at that time was Via E. Lugaro, 14, 00168, Roma, Italy. E-mail <CHIRUSC@RM.MWARE.IT>.
From Rob Blair <email@example.com>. Here are two references to Karen Horney that reflect her considerable influence:
Matthew J. Rapael's 2000 biography of the co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous, Bill W. and Mr. Wilson, contains references to Karen Horney in several letters Wilson wrote in the mid-1950s, extolling her insights. I believe Wilson was influenced by Dr. Horney, especially in his early 1950s Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions.
The Hoffman Institute's Quadrinity Process, an eight-day experiential therapy, introduces its participants to Dr. Horney's concept of "basic anxiety" in Bob Hoffman's 19-page monograph titled "The Negative Love Syndrome and the Quadrinity Model, a Path to Personal Freedom and Love." You can access this document on the Hoffman Institute internet page: <http://www.hoffmaninstitute.org>.
From Ralph H. Hannon (1999). "My main area of interest is science and religion. This also includes a serious interest in transpersonal psychology and Zen. I remember running across Horney often enough in the transpersonal psychology material, but was quite surprised when reading A Zen Life: D. T. Suzuki Remembered (Ed. By Masao Abe). Not only was she interested in what Zen had to offer, but she was a friend of Suzuki! When Susan Quinn published her book on Horney, I once again renewed my interest. When Lawrence Shainberg wrote Ambivalent Zen, there were Kelman and Horney throughout the book." Address: Department of Chemistry & Physics, Kishwaukee College, Malta, Illinois 60150.
From Joanna Kapica. I am a student of psychology at Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Warsaw, Poland. My interest in Karen Horney began two years ago, when I learnt about her Mature Theory. It was then I decided to make her the subject of my master's thesis, which I am writing under the direction of Andrzej Jakubik, M.D., M.A., Professor of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology.
Since Karen Horney is not well known in my country, my project is to introduce her both as a person and as a great psychoanalyst and to give a detailed account of her theories. Given the fact that no biography of Horney has been published in Poland so far, this project is quite challenging. Thanks to kind help from Bernard Paris, who provided me with many books concerning Horney, I have good sources of information for my work.
If you are then interested in sharing or exchanging any information about Karen Horney with me, please send an e-mail to the following address: <firstname.lastname@example.org>
In 1999, Kathleen Moore wrote that she was writing a Master's thesis on "A Horneyan Perspective on Adolescent Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Parent-Family Relations" at the Smith College School for Social Work. At that time, her address was 408 Vassar S.E., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106.
In 1998, Victoria Tooker completed a Master's thesis at Illinois State University: "The Relationship between Karen Horney's Personality Typologies and Commonly Measured Psychological Constructs". From the Abstract: "Two studies were conducted to examine the personality typologies -- moving toward, moving against, and moving away from -- proposed by Karen Horney. Descriptions of the personality typologies in Neurosis and Human Growth were analyzed, revealing measurable constructs: attachment, emotional regulation, internal dialogue, sociotropy, autonomy, self-defeating behavior, and identity status. Each personality group was expected to display a distinct pattern for each construct, based on Horney's theory . . . . Study 2 examined the relationship between the 'Big 5' model of personality and Horney's personality types."
Here are a few items of particular interest from the bibliography:
John, O. P. (1990). The "Big Five" factor taxonomy: Dimensions of personality in the natural language and in questionnaires. In L. Pervin (Ed.) Handbook of Personality Theory and Research, pp. 66-100. New York: Guilford.
Muller, R. J. (1993). Karen Horney's "Resigned Person" heralds DSM-III-R's borderline personality disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 34, 264-72.
Syrakic, D. M. (1986). "The real self of narcissistic personalities: A clinical approach". American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 47, 167-81
van den Daele, L. (1987). Research in Horney's psychoanalytic theory. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 47, 99-104.
In 1998, Victoria Tooker's address was 5020 N. Prospect Rd., Peoria, Illinois 61614. E-mail: <email@example.com>
George Varvatsoulias, Ph.D., a Greek theologian, has written a doctoral thesis at Durham University, England, entitled "Neurosis according to Karen Horney and the Anthropological Aspects of Saint Maximus the Confessor: A Comparative Study". "I have been investigating Karen Horney's work and I came to the conclusion that it is not only a very constructive one in theory but also useful for modern man to overcome his imperfections and dysfunctions caused by the various neurotic phenomena. The work of Saint Maximus the Confessor (6th century A.D.) relates to Horney's regarding those ideas and is scrutinized through anthropological concepts." Dr. Varvatsoulias's address is Themistokleous 2, 15122 Marrousi, Athens, Greece.
[Update, 2004. Address is now Megalou Alexandrou 06, 13671 Acharnai, Attikh, Greece. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org]
Marcus Wiesner, Ph.D. <email@example.com> has written a Horneyan study of Adolph Hitler that is appearing as a two-part essay in Mentalities/MentalitÚs, an international interdisciplinary journal (edited by Dr. Norman Simms, English Dept., University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand). Part I is in Volume 16 (2001), 29-48. Dr. Wiesner has provided the following abstract:
According to Karen Horney, an individual's neurotic "search for glory" can have the intensity of the most elemental of human drives. This study compares Horney's observations of patients, particularly those having arrogant-vindictive character trends, with the known facts of Hitler's life. Finding a close match over the course of Hitler's life, the study argues that Hitler can be viewed as a "destruction artist," with his failure to find success in the artistic realm as the source of his relentless enmity toward Jews and the reason he moved to the political arena, where his need to triumph over other mercilessly was a pathological manifestation of his search for glory.
Dr. Wiesner is a psychologist who has been trained in psychoanalytic
psychotherapy. He maintains a private practice in Montclair, New Jersey.
[Update, 2004. Dr. Wiesner's study has now been published separately as Destruction Artist: An Interpretive Study of Adolph Hitler by Outrigger Publishers, Hamilton, New Zealand.]
From Martin Kaplan. Psychotherapy Study Group of Philadelphia. Six Ph.D. clinical psychologists with at least 20 years experience each are eager to contact those interested in Horney and to learn about anything Horneyan. Contact Martin J. Kaplan, Ph.D.. E-mail: <firstname.lastname@example.org> . 819 Parkridge Drive, Media, PA (between Wilmington and Philadelphia). Tel. 610-565-8120. Fax: 610-891-6875.
From Celia Hunt, D. Phil. I am Lecturer in Continuing Education at the University of Sussex, where I teach theory and practice of creative writing. My primary research interests are in the use of autobiographical creative writing as a developmental or therapeutic tool in higher education. My D.Phil. (completed 1999) explored the experience of students taking my creative writing course 'Autobiography and the Imagination', some of whom derived therapeutic benefit from fictionalising themselves, their experience and significant people in their lives. I made extensive use of the theories of Karen Horney in analysing the material that arose out of this research and found these theories particularly helpful in understanding the difficulties that some of these students experienced in creating fictional characters based on themselves. These difficulties I interpreted as arising out of inner conflicts between different 'life solutions', in the Horneyan sense. I saw the writing of fictional autobiography as a means of provoking a 'metaphorical confrontation' with these conflicts that facilitated a deeper emotional understanding of them and hence therapeutic benefit. Against this background, I then explored, using Horney's theories and the literary critical work of Bernard Paris that draws on them, the possibility that fictional autobiography might be used as a means of self-therapy. The research was published in my book Therapeutic Dimensions of Autobiography in Creative Writing (Jessica Kingsley, London, 2000; ISBN 1853027472).
Dr. Celia Hunt, Centre for Continuing Education, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RG, England, UK.
Phone: (01273) 678040
Fax: (01273) 678848
I'd like to add to what Dr. Hunt has said that in 1993 she wrote a Master's dissertation at the University of Sussex on "The Inner Conflicts of Franz Kafka: A Horneyan Approach to the Man and His Writings." BJP
From Benjamin Tong, Ph.D. <email@example.com> I continue to make full use of Horney's work in my teaching and supervision of clinical psychology students at the California Institute of Integral Studies (San Francisco). I run the school of Taoist Internal Arts, which offers instruction in Tai Ch'i, Ch'i Gung, and Taoist Studies. I have a practice in psychotherapy as well as one in feng shui consultation.
Horney in Italy
Before 1989, the only organized forms of psychoanalysis in Italy were Freudian and Jungian. There were many reasons for this, including the bond between the Italian and Austro-Hungarian cultures at the beginning of the last century, Freud's love of Italy and his contact with the first Italian psychoanalyst (Weiss), and the opposition of the Fascist regime. However, in 1989 legal recognition was given to the practice of psychotherapy by physicians and psychologists trained not only in public universities but also in private Schools of Specialization in Psychotherapy. Since then, numerous other psychoanalytic approaches have flourished, including those of such "Neofreudians" as Karen Horney, which before had been cultivated only by a few.
Clinical practice inspired by Horney's theory, especially as applied to groups, was introduced in Italy by Vincent A. Morrone, M.D., who was born in New York, educated in Italy, and trained at the American Institute for Psychoanalysis, where he studied with people who had been members of Horney's inner circle, including Harold Kelman, Norman Kelman, Isidore Portnoy, and Louis De Rosis. He also studied with such pioneers of group analysis as Alexander Wolf, H. Durkin, H. Kadis, and H. Glazer. Returning to Italy, Dr. Morrone spread the Horneyan approach through his training of psychiatrists at the University of Rome and his supervision of medical and psychological professionals practicing in some public Mental Health Centers in Rome. In 1989, he founded the SocietÓ di Psicoanalisi Interpersonale e Gruppo-Analisi (SPIGA), which annexed the School of Specialization in Psychotherapy and which was legally recognized in January of 2001. Dr. Morrone serves as Director, Teacher-Trainer, and Supervisor at SPIGA. The SPIGA website is at <www.spigahorney.it> . Horney theory is also taught at Ergon -- istituto di psicoanalisi e di psicotherapia interpersonale, which is located in Bari and directed by Giuseppe Miccolis.
The academic diffusion of Horney's theory in Italy has been the work of Diego Garofalo <firstname.lastname@example.org >, who studied Philosophy at the University of Rome and Psychology at the University of Padua before receiving his Ph.D. at the Salesian University of Rome. He has been trained in psychoanalysis first by Claudio Modigliani (formerly secretary of the SocietÓ Psiocoanalitica Italiana) and then by Vincent Morrone. While at Padua in 1979, he published the first and only Italian textbook on Horney's thought: La psicoanalisi interpersonale. Introduzione all'opera di Karen Horney (CLEUP, Padova, preface by Allesandro Salvini). In 1995, he placed Horney's theory in the wider context of Neofreudian thought in Una psicoanalisi a misura d'uomo. Le nuove vie dei neofrueudiani (EDUP, Roma, preface by Luigi Cancrini). Finally, as a result of his participation as teacher-trainer in the SPIGA School of Specialization, he has written about Horneyan theory in relation to group analysis in Analisi di gruppo. La prospettiva inerpersonale di Karen Horney (EDUP, Roma, 2001), peface by Antonello Correale). In this volume, he interlaces Horney's insights with those of many other more "orthodox" analysts, such as Winnicott, Bion, and object relations theorists. He argues that Horney's interpersonal perspective anticipated the modern orientation of psychotherapy toward the so-called auto-eco-systemic paradigm. This paradigm is based on the auto-organization of organisms (from Goldstein to Maturana and Varela and recent developmental system theory); on the ecological conception of mind (from Smut's holism to Bateson's interdisciplinary approach); and on the cybernetic consideration of every development (from the first relational-systemic theory to those of second order cybernetics -- e.g., Keeney, von Forester).
At this point, a closer collaboration of Horney's school with complementary ones currently existing in Italy would be desirable. These include the Istituto Erich Fromm di Psicoanalisi Neofreudiania in Bologna <email@example.com >, the Istituto di Psicoterapia Analitica H. S. Sullivan in Florence <firstname.lastname@example.org >, and the Istituto Neofreudiana di Psiconanalisi in Milan (Via Malzi d'Eril, 32 -- 20154 Milano).
Submitted by Diego Garofalo; edited by BJP
From Russia. The East-European Institute of Psychoanalysis has published Russian translations of Neurosis and Human Growth (sponsored by the IKHS) and Feminine Psychology. In 1995, a delegation from the IKHS (Bernard Paris, Mario Rendon, and Andrew Tershakovec) gave a four-day series of seminars on Horney theory at the EEIP.
EAST-EUROPEAN INSTITUTE OF PSYCHOANALYSIS (EEIP)
East-European Institute for Psychoanalysis founded on September 16 in 1991 is the first institution in Russia accomplishing psychoanalytical training of full value. The Institute was established as educational, methodological, scientific, consulting and cultural center. The Institute brings about training and retraining in the fields of psychology and psychotherapy, accomplishing graduating, postgraduating and supplementary educational programs.
The Institute is licensed and accredited for specialty "Psychology" (020400) and specialization in the fields "Clinical Psychoanalysis", "Children Psychoanalysis", "Group Psychoanalysis" and "Psychoanalytical Consulting". The Institute has in its own disposal the only Russian-located psychoanalytical library completed with works in Russian and other languages, including all basic works published from 1920 till 1994 and the number of the last works in this field. The library facilities include the comfortable reading hall. The Institute runs its own publishing house, methodological center, cafe-club "Berggasse, 19" and the unique S.Freud Dream`s museum. The total circulation of books published by the Institute in such fields as psychology, psychotherapy and psychoanalysis is more than 200000 copies. The Institute issues scientific and methodological journal "Psychoanalytic Bulletin". The electronic version of the latter is also available.
The teaching activities such as lectures and seminars are accomplished by staff lectures and leading experts from psychoanalytical centers in the Great Britain, France, Germany, the U.S.A. and other countries. For students attendance of these extra curricula lectures (it is more than 200 academic hours annually ) is free of charge. The Institute-based training center for psychotherapists is the first in Russia.
Currently there are more than 400 students who are thought in the Institute. They came from Ukraine, the Baltic States, Belorussia, Moldova, Holland, Israel and other European and Asian countries. In frame of program of continuous education the Institute accomplishes the lasting courses of retraining in cooperation with American Psychoanalytical Association, London Institute for Psychoanalysis, Mid-Manhattan Institute for Psychoanalysis, Psychology Department of University of Montreal, French Society for Psychoanalysis and others. Some lecturers from The Institute got through retraining courses abroad. For the last three years the enrollment of students in the Institute was doubled.
Conferences. For the last ten years the Institute organized four international conferences: 1995 -- "One Hundred Years of Psychoanalysis. The Russian Roots, Repressions and Returning of Russia into International Psychoanalytical Community". 1998 -- "Psychoanalysis -- Literature -- Art", 1999 -- "Sigmund Freud in Context of Russian and Austrian Cultures", 2001 -- "Ten Years of Psychoanalysis in Russia: Russian Experience". In these conferences took part more than 200 foreign experts from Australia, Austria, the U.K., Germany, Holland, Israel, Italy, Canada, Norway, the U.S.A., Finland, France, South Africa, Armenia, Belorussia, Bulgaria, Georgia, Kazachstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Ukraine and Estonia. Since 2000 the Institute is the methodological center of National Federation for Psychoanalysis consists of 20 local organizations.
Research activities. The Institute carries out different projects in such fields as psychotherapy, sociopsychology, socioeconomics and polithology. Among our customers are the Administration of Russian President, the Russian Government, the Ministries of Healthcare and Education, the St.-Petersburg City Hall, leading state and commercial structures and mass media. The Institute research fellows published 7 scientific books and more than 150 articles in psychology, psychotherapy, sociology, politology, pedagogy and culturology. All researches are carry out with using of modern technology