Second language acquisition 1

The differences b/n first language acquisition and second language acquisition

Error Analysis

Learner’s Errors
• Learner’s errors provide evidence of how language is learned or acquired.
• Learners employ strategies or procedures to discover the language.

Mistakes & Errors
• Mistake – a performance error that is either a random guess or a “slip,” in that it is a failure to utilize a known system correctly.
• Error – a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native speaker, reflecting the interlanguage competence of the learner.

Mistakes & Errors
Incorrect - John cans sing.

Correct - John can sing.

Incorrect - John wills go.

Incorrect – John mays come.

Error Analysis
• Errors can be observed, analyzed, and classified to reveal something of the system operating within the learner.

Error Sources
• Interlingual errors of interference from the native language.
• Intralingual errors within the target audience.
• Sociolinguistic context of communication.

Error Sources
• Psycholinguistic or cognitive strategies.
• Countless affective variables.

Errors in Error Analysis
• Teachers pay too much attention to errors.
• Overstressing of production data.
• Avoidance.
• View the universal aspects of language.

The Ultimate Goal
• The ultimate goal of learning a second language is the attainment of communicative fluency.

• Identify errors of addition, omission, substitution, and ordering.
• i.e. I went to movie.
• i.e. I to the store went.

• Levels of language: phonology, lexicon, grammar, and discourse.

• Global errors hinder communication.
• i.e. “Well, it’s a great hurry around.”
• Local errors have only minor violations.
• i.e. “A scissors.”

Stages of Interlanguage Development
• Random Orders – the learner is only vaguely aware that there is some systematic order to a particular class of items.
• i.e. John cans sing.

Stages of Interlanguage Development
• Emergent Stage – the learner grows in consistency in linguistic production.

Stages of Interlanguage Development
• Systematic Stage – the learner is now able to manifest more consistency in producing the second language.

Stages of Interlanguage Development
• Stabilization Stage – the learner has relatively few errors and has mastered the system to the point that fluency and intended meanings are not problematic.

Communicative Competence:

This term refers to the ability to communicate efficiently and successfully. This implies the acquisition of different abilities or skills:

-Grammatical Competence: Knowledge of core components of the grammar.

(phonology, syntax, morphology, semantics)

-Discourse Competence: Ability to organize sentences in a discourse.

Eg.:He’s brilliant. He’s a student. He’s from US vs. He’s a bright American stud..

-Sociolinguistic/Pragmatic Competence: Style of language in certain contexts

Informal vs. formal; talking to friends vs. talking to others (Sociolinguistics).

The intended meaning of a sentence beyond its form (Pragmatics)

-Strategic Competence: Strategies used by speakers to overcome problems or repair communication breakdown (Repairing misunderstanding, avoiding topics, etc)

Interlanguage (IL): Language in between a learner's native language (L1) and the target language (L2)

Role of L1:

It somehow influences the learning of the target language. L2 learner can transfer properties of her/his L1 into the L2. (Transfer

-Transfer errors

E.g., pronouncing /p/ instead of /f/, by Korean speaker since Korean does not have /f/ sounds.

E.g., “I drank often coffee.” by French speakers since adverbs can appear anywhere in French.

Role of L2:
It could also be source of errors for the L2 learner, since this learner could over-generalize the rules of L2 learned so far
(Developmental errors)

e.g., I have more pretty shoes. Or She have apples.