Key Publications


Books are in bold
xx = double entries indicate overlapping areas

Historical Archaeology

"Interpreting Idaho 's Heritage," Idaho Yesterdays, 19(4), 1976.

Historical Archaeology: A Structural Approach in an African Culture. Greenwood Press, Westport.1978.

An Alternative to a Strictly Materialist Perspective: A Review of Historical Archaeology, Ethnoarchaeology, and Symbolic Approaches in African Archaeology." Review of Old World Archaeology, coordinated by Eugene Sterud, American Antiquity, vol. 48, (1) 1983, pp. 62-81.

"History, Smugglers, Change and Shipwrecks." In Shipwreck Anthropology, edited by R. A. Gould. School of American Research, University of New Mexico Press, Albequerque, 1983, pp. 143-171. With S. Mrozowski .

Documentary Insights into the Archaeology of Smuggling' In Documentary Archaeology, ed. by Mary Beaudry, Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp. 32-42.

"Oral Traditions, Archaeology, and History in Africa : A Short Reflective History," in A History of African Archaeology, ed. by Peter Robertshaw. James Currey. 1990, pp. 252-270.

Making Alternative Histories: The Practice of Archaeology and History in Non-Western Settings, ed. by P.R. Schmidt and T. Patterson. School of American Research, Santa Fe . 1995.

"Using Archaeology to Remake African History." In Making Alternative Histories, ed. by P. Schmidt and T. Patterson. SAR Press. 1995, pp. 118-147.

"From Constructing to Making Alternative Histories." In Making Alternative Histories, ed. by P. Schmidt and T. Patterson. With T. Patterson. SAR Press, Santa Fe . 1995.

xx Iron Technology in East Africa : Symbolism, Science, and Archaeology. University of Indiana Press, Bloomington . 1997. Chapter 2.


Ethnoarchaeology

xxAn Alternative to a Strictly Materialist Perspective: A Review of Historical Archaeology, Ethnoarchaeology, and Symbolic Approaches in African Archaeology." Review of Old World Archaeology, coordinated by Eugene Sterud, American Antiquity, vol. 48, (1) 1983, pp. 62-81.

The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production, ed. by P.R. Schmidt. University Press of Florida , Gainesville . 1996.

"Reconfiguring the Barongo: Reproductive Symbolism and Reproduction among a Work Association of Iron Smelters." In The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production, ed. by P.R. Schmidt. University Press of Florida , 1996, pp. 74-127.

Iron Technology in East Africa : Symbolism, Science, and Archaeology. University of Indiana Press, Bloomington . 1997.


Ethnoarchaeology/Ethnotechnology/Iron Technology

"Prehistoric Culture and Complex Iron Smelting in Tanzania ," Science, vol. 201, 1978, pp. 1085-1089 with D. H. Avery.

"A Metallurgical Study of the Iron Bloomery, Particularly as practiced in Buhaya," Journal of Metals, October 1979, pp. 14-20. With D. Avery.

"Steel Production in Prehistoric Africa : Insights from Ethnoarchaeology in West Lake , Tanzania ," Proceedings of the 8th Pan African Congress of Prehistory andQuaternary Studies, edited by R.E. Leakey and B.A. Ogot. Nairobi , TILLMIAP, 1980, pp.335-340.

"Experimental Iron Smelting: The Genesis of a Hypothesis with Implications for African Prehistory. In African Iron Working, Ancient and Traditional, edited by Peter Shinnie and R. Haaland, Norwegian University Press, Bergen , 1985, pp.121-141. With S. Terry Childs

"The Use of Preheated Air in Ancient and Recent African Iron Smelting Furnaces: A Reply to Rehder," Journal of Field Archaeology 13:3, 1986, pp. 354-356. With D. H. Avery.

"Ancient African Iron Production." American Scientist, vol. 83 (6) 1995, pp. 524-533. With S. Terry Childs.

"Les Hauts-Fourneaux de Brousse" La Recherche. May, 1997, pp. 54-58. With S. Terry Childs.

"Actualistic Models for Interpretation of Two Early Iron Age Sites in Northwestern Tanzania ." In lee Culture and Technology of African Iron Production, ed. by P.R. Schmidt. With S.T. Childs. University Press of Florida , 1996, pp. 186-233.

"Preheating: Practice or Illusion." In The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production. With D.H. Avery. University Press of Florida , 1996, pp. 267-276.


Symbolic Interpretation

xxAn Alternative to a Strictly Materialist Perspective: A Review of Historical Archaeology, Ethnoarchaeology, and Symbolic Approaches in African Archaeology." Review of Old World Archaeology, American Antiquity, vol. 48, (1) 1983, pp. 62-81.

"Cultural Meaning and History in African Myth." International Journal of Oral History, vol.4(3) 1983, pp. 165-183.

xx"Reconfiguring the Barongo: Reproductive Symbolism and Reproduction among a Work Association of Iron Smelters." In The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production, ed. by P.R. Schmidt. University Press of Florida , 1996, pp. 74-127.

xx Iron Technology in East Africa: Symbolism, Science, and Archaeology. University of Indiana Press, Bloomington . 1997. Chapters 2, 9, 10.

"Reading Ideology in the African Archaeological Record." With B.B. Mapunda. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 16: 73-102, 1997.

Reading Gender in Ancient African Iron Technology." In Gender in African Prehistory , ed. Susan Kent. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek , pp.139-162, 1998

"Resisting Homogenization & Recovering Variation and Innovation in African Iron Smelting." Mediterranean Archaeology , Special Edition, eds. Jean-Paul Descoeudres, Eric Hysecom, Vincent Serneels, and Jean-Louis Zimmermann. Vol. 14: 219-228, 2002.

 

African Archaeology; Tanzania , Eritrea , Gabon , Cameroon

"A New Look at Interpretations of the Early Iron Age in East Africa ," History in Africa , vol. 2, 1975, pp. 127-136.

The Origins of Iron Smelting in Africa: A Complex Technology in Tanzania. Research Papers in Anthropology, No. 1, Brown University , 1981.

Quelques Resultats sur l 'Age du Fer au Gabon , Universite Omar Bongo, Libreville , Gabon , with L. Digombe, M. Locko, and V Mouleingui-Boukossou, April, 1985.

"More Evidence for an Advanced Prehistoric Iron Technology in Africa ," Journal of Field Archaeology, vol.10(4) 1983, pp. 421-434.

"Resultats des Datations au Carbone 14 Concernant la Prehistoire au Gabon: Results of Carbon 14 Dating Concerning Prehistory," L 'Anthropologie (Paris), Tome 88, no. 3, pp. 457 458. With M. Locko, A.S. Diop, V. Mouleingui-Boukossou, and J. B. Mombo.

"Newly dated Iron Age sites in Gabon ," Nyame Akuma, No. 26, 1985, pp. 16-18. With Lazare Digombe, Michel Locko, Vincent Mouleingui.

"Radiocarbon dates for the Iron Age in Gabon ," Current Anthropology, vol. 26, (4) 1985, p.516. With Lazare Digombe, Michel Locko, Vincent Mouleingui-Boukosso, and Jean-Bernard Mombo.

Archaeological Investigations in the Vicinity of Mkiu, Kisarawe District, Tanzania , Archaeological Contributions of the University of Dar es Salaam, Occasional Paper No. 1. Dar es Salaam , 1992. With N.J. Karoma, A. LaViolette, W. Fawcett, A. Mabulla, L. Rutabanzibwa, and C. Sanane.

" Gabon : The Earliest Iron Age of West Central Africa ," Nyame Akuma, No. 27, 1986. With L. Digombe et. al. Principal author.

"L'Age du Fer Ancien du Gabon" L'Anthropologie, Vol. 91, (2), pp. 711-715, 1987. With L. Digombe et. al. Principal author.

"The Development of Early Iron Age Prehistory in Gabon ," Current Anthropology, Vol. 22 (1), 1988, pp. 179-184. Principal Author.

"Eastern Expressions of the Mwitu Tradition: Early Iron Age Industry of the Usambara Mountains , Tanzania ," Nyame Akuma, No.30, 1988 pp. 36-37.

"'The Coast and the Hinterland: The University of Dar es Salaam Field School, 1987-88." Nyame Akuma, 32, 1989, pp. 38-46. With Adria LaViolette and William Fawcett

"Early Exploitation and Settlement in the Usambara Mountains ," in Forest Conservation in the East Usambara Mountains , Tanzania , ed. by Alan Hamilton and Robert Bensted-Srnith, International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Gland , Switzerland and Cambridge , U.K. , 1989, pp. 75-78.

"Archaeological Survey in Northwestern Cameroon ," Nyame Akuma No. 34, 1990, pp. 10-16. With Raymond Asombang.

"Rock-Shelters and a Greater History of the Bamenda Grassfields , Cameroon," Nyame Akuma, 34, 1990, pp. 5-10. With Raymond Asombang.

"An Interpretative Model for Sustainability Based on the Use and Transformation of a Forested Landscape in Eastern Equatorial Africa ," in Environment and Archaeology: Emerging Trends and New Techniques for Heritage Management & Sustainable Development in Tropical Forest Areas, ed. by A. Gus Pantel and Kent Schneider. Organization of American States and United States Department of Agriculture, Atlanta, 1992, pp. 30-38.

"Historical Ecology and Landscape Transformation in Eastern Equatorial Africa," in Historical Ecology, ed. by Carole Crumley, School of American Research, 1993, pp. 99-125.

"The Agricultural hinterland and settlement trends in Tanzania ." Azania 29-30 (1996), pp. 261-62.

"Cultural Representation of African Iron Production." In The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production, ed. by P.R. Schmidt. University Press of Florida, 1996, pp. 1-28.

"Archaeological Views on a History of Landscape Change in East Africa ." Journal of African History. 38: 393-421, 1997.

"Are there Tropical African Responses to the 536 AD Event?" In Human Responses to the 536 Event , ed. Joel Gunn. Archaeopress, BAR Reports, Oxford , 2000.

"Urban Precursors in the Horn: Early 1 st Millennium Communities in Eritrea." Antiquity . 75: 849-859, 2001.

"The "Ona" Culture of Greater Asmara: Archaeology's Liberation of Eritrea's Ancient History from Colonial Paradigms." Journal of Eritrean Studies 1 (1) 29-59, 2002.

"Why Deep Time Landscape Histories are Needed to Improve Environmental Management in Africa ." In Aquatic Resources in Africa , eds. Thomas Chrisman and L. Chapman. University Press of Florida , Gainesville , 2003.

Postcolonial Archaeologies in Africa, ed. by P. R. Schmidt. SAR Press, Santa Fe, 2009.


Human Rights & Heritage Management

"Early Iron Age Settlements and Industrial Locales in West Lake ," Tanzania Notesand Records, Nos. 84-85, 1980, pp.77-94.

"Foreword: Human Rights and Governance," in Human Rights and Governance in Africa, ed. by R. Cohen, G. Hyden, and W. Nagan, University Press of Florida ,1993, pp. xi-xii.

"A Human Right to a Cultural Heritage: African Expressions and Configurations." In the East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights, vol. 2, no. 1, 1995, pp.41-52.

The Plundering of Africa 's Past, ed. by P.R. Schmidt and R. McIntosh. Univ. of Indiana Press, Bloomington and James Currey, London. 1996

"The African Past Endangered." In Plundering Africa 's Past, ed. by P.R. Schmidt and R. McIntosh. University of Indiana Press, 1996, pp. 1-17. With R. McIntosh.

"The Human Right to a Cultural Heritage: African Applications." In Plundering Africa 's Past, ed. by P.R. Schmidt and R. McIntosh. University of Indiana Press, 1996, pp. 18-28.

"A Culture of Looting in the United States : Genesis of a Trade in Illicit African Art." In the Proceedings of the ICOM (International Commission of Museums) workshop on the protection of the African Heritage. ICOM, Paris, pp. 95-101, 1997.

" Heritage and Tourism: Issues and Alternatives in Eritrea." The Journal of Eritrean Studies 2:29-44, 2003.


Oral Traditions and Archaeology

xx Historical Archaeology: A Structural Approach in an African Culture Greenwood Press, Westport.1978. Chapters 1-6

xx"Cultural Meaning and History in African Myth." International Journal of Oral History, vol.4(3) 1983, pp. 165-183.

xx"Oral Traditions, Archaeology, and History in Africa : A Short Reflective History," in A History of African Archaeology, ed. by Peter Robertshaw. James Currey. 1990, pp. 252-270.

xx"Rhythmed Time and Its Archaeological Implications," In Aspects of African Archaeology: Papers of the 10th PanAfrican Association for Prehistory and Related Studies, edited by G. Pwiti and R. Soper. University of Zimbabwe Publications, Harare , 1996, 654-659


Films
 

Beating the Bellows: An Archaeological Experiment in African Iron Technology. A 25 minute, 16mm color documentary. Producer and Director. 1982.

The Tree of Iron A 58 minute, color documentary. Producer, 1988. A National PBS Black History Month feature, Feb. 1995.