Sample footnote forms (I provide the long form that you should use for the first time you cite a source, and then a short form that you should use in all subsequent citations to that source). You may use footnotes or endnotes, whichever is easier for you.




Long form: Amy Dru Stanley, From Bondage to Contract: Wage Labor, Marriage, and the Market in the Age of Slave Emancipation (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 56.


Short form: Stanley, Bondage to Contract, 89.


NOTE: You may use an Ibid citation as your short form if you are referring to the book in the footnote above. The Ibid citation form is as follows: Ibid., 17.




Long form: Anthony T. Kronman, “Paternalism and the Law of Contract,” Yale Law Journal 92 (1983): 763-798.


Short form: Kronman, “Paternalism,” 771.


Newspaper article:


“Trial of Martin Posey,” Edgefield Advertiser October 17, 1849, 2.


There is not short or long form, though you may use ibid.


General tips: in a footnote you want to give the source title, the date it was published and a page number. If you can’t figure out how to cite a source, a footnote that gives that material is a good start.


If you look at the books and articles you are relying on, you will see other examples of how to cite materials in footnotes. You can use them as models for your papers.